UPSC Current Affairs

Constitution Day

Constitution Day BR Ambedkar

Constitution Day

Constitution Day, also known as ‘Samvidhan Divas’, is celebrated on 26th November every year to commemorate the adoption of the Constitution of India. Let’s uphold the spirit of our Constitution, today and every day.

  • The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution of India on 26th November 1949, which came into effect on 26th January 1950.
  • On 19th November 2015, the Government of India decided to celebrate the 26th day of November every year as ‘Constitution Day’ to promote Constitution values among citizens.
How did the Constitution of India come into being?
  • From 1947 to 1950, India continued to use the legislation implemented when it was a dominion of Britain.
  • In the meantime, the Constituent Assembly drafted the Constitution of India, which would replace the Government of India Act, of 1935, as the country’s fundamental governing document.
  • The Constitution was drawn from a number of sources, while India’s needs and conditions were given paramount importance.
  • B R Ambedkar studied the Constitutions of over 60 countries before drafting the Constitution of India.
Brief timeline:
  • On December 6, 1949 the Constitution Assembly was formed and its first meeting was held on December 9.
  • Rajendra Prasad was appointed its President and C Mukherjee its vice-chairman.
  • On August 29, 1947, the drafting committee appointed B. R Ambedkar as its chairman and six other members — Munshi N Gopalaswami Ayyangar, Khaitan, Mitter, Muhammed Sadulla, Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer.
  • On November 26, 1949, the Constitution of India was adopted by the Assembly. On January 26, 1950, the Constitution was enforced.
  • It took almost three years to write the constitution.
What are the salient features of the Indian Constitution?
  • Lengthiest written constitution
  • Most of the provisions are borrowed from other countries
  • The Preamble consists of the ideals, objectives, and basic principles of the Constitution
  • It enshrines a democratic system where the authority of the government rests upon the sovereignty of the people
  • It also declares India as a Republic, where the Head of the State (President) is elected
  • Also, the Indian constitution provides for a federal system of government where the powers are shared between the Central and State Governments
  • The Constitution also provides for an independent judiciary with an integrated judicial system. It provides for a Parliamentary form of government where the Council of Ministers is responsible before the Lok Sabha

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