UPSC Current Affairs

Human Development Index

HDI - Ekam IAS

Human Development Index

  • India ranks 132 out of 191 countries in the Human Development Index (HDI) 2021 from 130 in 2020, after registering a decline in its score over two consecutive years for the first time in three decades.
  • The drop is in line with the global trend since the outbreak of COVID-19 during which 90% of the countries have fallen backward in human development.
  • According to the report, released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), India’s HDI value stood at 633 during 2021, which was lower than the world average of 0.732.
  • In 2020, too, India recorded a decline in its HDI value (0.642) in comparison to the pre-Covid level of 2019 (0.645).
  • HDI is composite index that measures average achievement in human development taking into account four indicators:
  • life expectancy at birth (Sustainable Development Goal 3)
  • expected years of schooling (SDG 4.3)
  • mean years of schooling (SDG 4.4)
  • gross national income (GNI) per capita (2017 PPP$) (SDG 8.5).
  • In 2021, India’s Index values :
  • life expectancy at birth was recorded at 2 years
  • expected years of schooling at 9 years
  • mean years of schooling at 7 years
  • gross national income per capita (2017 PPP) at $6,590.
  • On all these four parameters, India was behind the world averages in 2021: life expectancy at 71.4 years, expected years of schooling at 12.8 years, mean years of schooling at 8.6 years and gross national income per capita (2017 PPP$) at $16,752.

HDI-1 - Ekam IAS

HDI-2 - Ekam IAS

UPSC Prelims Model Question

Q. Who among the following releases the Human Development Index?

a) World Bank
b) International Monetary Fund
c) United Nations Development Programme
d) World Economic Forum

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