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World Hepatitis Day

World Hepatitis Day-Ekam IAS
UPSC Current Affairs

World Hepatitis Day

On this World Hepatitis Day, the World Health Organization (WHO) is highlighting the need to bring hepatitis care closer to the people in need. This means making hepatitis care available, affordable and accessible to all without discrimination. This is crucial in the quest to eliminate viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030, a global target. Elimination would translate to 90% reduction in incidence and 65% reduction in mortality by 2030, compared to the corresponding figures of 2015.

About World Hepatitis Day
  • World Hepatitis Day is observed each year on 28th July to raise awareness and promote global action on viral hepatitis.
  • The year 2022 theme is “Bringing hepatitis care closer to you”,
  • It aims to raise awareness about the need to simplify and bring hepatitis care to primary health facilities, community-based venues and locations beyond hospital sites, so that care is closer to communities and people wherever they are.
  • The Seventy-Fifth World Health Assembly noted with appreciation the new Global Health Sector Strategies on, respectively, HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections for the period 2022-2030 (GHSS) and approved its implementation for the next 8 years.
  • To achieve the goal of the new Global Health Sector Strategies on, respectively, HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections for the period 2022-2030 (GHSS), those in need must have access to hepatitis services that are accessible, and that are equitable, effective, efficient, timely and of an acceptable quality.
  • Only For Four Diseases such as Hiv-Aids (1st December), Tb (24th March), Malaria (25th April), And Hepatitis, The World Health Organization (Who) Officially Endorses Disease-Specific Global Awareness Days.
Hepatitis
  • Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver.
  • There are five main types of the hepatitis virus – A, B, C, D and E.
  • Hepatitis B and C lead to chronic disease in hundreds of millions of people globally, and together are the most common cause of liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and viral hepatitis-related deaths.
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the hepadnavirus group, double-stranded DNA viruses which replicate, unusually, by reverse transcription.
  • The most common clinical consequence of infection with HAV or HEV is an illness characterized by sudden onset of fever and systemic symptoms, which is followed a few days later by
  • Diphtheria, Whooping cough, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, meningitis and pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae type B infections, Japanese encephalitis (JE), rotavirus vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and measles-rubella (MR) are all covered by India’s Universal Immunization Programme (UIP),However, vaccination against Japanese Encephalitis and Haemophilus influenzae type B is being provided in selected districts of the country.
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is transmitted through exposure to infective blood, semen, and other body fluids. HBV can be transmitted from infected mothers to infants at the time of birth or from family member to infant in early childhood. Transmission may also occur through transfusions of HBV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. HBV also poses a risk to healthcare workers who sustain accidental needle stick injuries while caring for infected-HBV patients. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV.
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is mostly transmitted through exposure to infective blood. This may happen through transfusions of HCV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. Sexual transmission is also possible, but is much less common. There is no vaccine for HCV.
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections occur only in those who are infected with HBV. The dual infection of HDV and HBV can result in a more serious disease and worse outcome. Hepatitis B vaccines provide protection from HDV infection.
  • Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is mostly transmitted through consumption of contaminated water or food. HEV is a common cause of hepatitis outbreaks in developing parts of the world and is increasingly recognized as an important cause of disease in developed countries. Safe and effective vaccines to prevent HEV infection have been developed but are not widely available.
In India
  • Hepatitis B virus infects 40 million people, and Hepatitis C virus infects 6 to 12 million people.
  • The National Viral Hepatitis Control Programme (NVHCP) was launched in 2018, with the goal of eradicating Hepatitis C by 2030. The programme is the world’s largest for diagnosing and treating hepatitis B and C.
  • Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Pneumonia, and Meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Measles, Rubella, Japanese Encephalitis (JE), and Rotavirus diarrhoea are all covered by India’s Universal Immunization Programme (UIP), which provides free vaccination against a total of 12 vaccine-preventable diseases.
  • Shantha Biotech, based in Hyderabad, developed the first recombinant DNA-based vaccine for Hepatitis B infection.
  • In the Southeast Asia region of the World Health Organization, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, and Thailand became the first four countries to successfully control Hepatitis B.
  • Recently, the ‘COBAS 6800′, an automated corona virus testing device that can also detect viral Hepatitis B and C, was released.

 

Model Question

Q. Which one of the following statements is not correct?

(a) Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a double-stranded DNA virus.

(b) Hepatitis B vaccines will also provide protection from Hepatitis D infections.

(c) Hepatitis C is covered under India’s Universal Immunization Programme.

(d) Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, and Thailand are the first four countries to successfully control Hepatitis B.

Answer:  C


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